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Kamis, 23 Februari 2012

MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS: GESTALT THEORY | MAKALAH TEORI GESTALT

CHAPTER I
Introduction

A.   Background
The study of gestalt originated in Germanyin the 1920s. It is a form of psychology that is interested in higher ordercognitive processes relative to behaviorism. The aspects of gestalt theory thatinterests designers are related to gestalt's investigations of visualperception, principally the relationship between the parts and the whole ofvisual experience.
The visual world is so complex that the mindhas developed strategies for coping with the confusion. The mind tries to findthe simplest solution to a problem. One of the ways it does this is to formgroups of items that have certain characteristics in common.
B.   Problem Statements
1.     What is the definition of Gestalt Theory?
2.     How does the Gestalt Theory principles?

C.    Objective Of The Study
1.     To put the designer in control of what the viewers seewhen they look at a composition.
2.     Gestalt theory holds that the whole is more thanthe sum of its parts. The other is when frighten process will be happened inthe student self to make an innovative and created idea.

  1. Significance Of The Study
The writer raises this topicor this problem because writer wants all teachers can know about Gestalt Theory.Writer also hopes all the candidates teacher can use this theory inteaching-learning process.

  1. Scope Of  The Study
In this paper, the writeronly discusses about the Gestalt Theory in specific way.



CHAPTER II
Discussion

A.    Gestalt Theory Definition
The German word gestaltcannot be translated into an equivalent, single English term. It encompassessuch a wide variety of concepts: a shape, a pattern, a whole form, and aconfiguration. Gestalt therapy draws on all of these meanings, with equalemphasis on the organized whole and on the notion of pattern.
Kurt Lewin stated,"There is nothing as practical as a good theory." This being true forall therapeutic modalities, it applies to Gestalt therapy as well. Excitement,awareness, contact, and dialogue are all crucial elements that come to life inthe therapeutic encounter. Being theoretically anchored and able toconceptualize the therapeutic change process is a prerequisite for contributingto the effectiveness of any therapeutic encounter and therefore growth.Defining and describing theoretical concepts, however, cannot capture theexcitement and vitality that is the vehicle for good contact, deepening ofawareness and the powerful choices one can access with all theirmulti-dimensional ramifications.
Most of what you will studyabout gestalt is concerned with how these groups are formed and what effectthey have on perception. The stronger the grouping, the stronger the gestalt.It is this grouping that contributes to the unity in a design. Gestalt is oneof the most powerful tools available to a designer for creating unity.
The same concepts that formgroups can be reversed to ungroup items -- to make them look unique and standalone. That is the basis for creating variety. Variety is what adds interest toan image.
The trick is to strike abalance between unity and variety. Too much unity and the design can lookboring and repetitive; too much variety and it can look chaotic anddisconnected. Understanding gestalt concepts can help a designer control unityand variety.
In fact, I may conclude that Gestalt therapyis about the aliveness and excitement, the awareness of choice everyone has increating their lives. Gestalt is a theory that explains perceptions processthrough sensation components organization which has a relation, shape or sameto be unity.

B.     Principles in Gestalt Theory
Gestalt theory is not limited only to theconcept of the Gestalt or the whole, or to the Gestalt principles of theorganization of perception (such as it is presented in many publications), butit must be seen far broader and more encompassing:
·        The primacy of the phenomenal: Recognizing andtaking seriously the human world of experience as the only immediately givenreality, and not simply discussing it away, is a fundamental assertion of GT,the fruitfulness of which for psychology and psychotherapy has by no means beenexhausted.
·        It is the interaction of the individual and thesituation in the sense of a dynamic field which determines experience andbehavior, and not only drives (psychoanalysis, ethology) or external stimuli(behaviorism, Skinner) or static personality traits (classical personalitytheory).
·        Connections among psychological contents aremore readily and more permanently created on the basis of substantive concreterelationships than by sheer repetition and reinforcement.
·        Thinking and problem solving are characterizedby appropriate substantive organization, restructuring, and centering of thegiven ('insight') in the direction of the desired solution.
·        In memory, structures based on associativeconnections are elaborated and differentiated according to a tendency foroptimal organization.
·        Cognitions which an individual cannot integrate,lead to an experience of dissonance. And towards cognitive processes directedat reducing this dissonance.
·        In a supra-individual whole such as a group,there is a tendency toward specific relationships in the interaction ofstrengths and needs.
The epistemological orientation of GestaltTheory tends to be a kind of critical realism. Methodologically, it tries toachieve a meaningful integration of experimental and phenomenologicalprocedures (the experimental-phenomenological method). Crucial phenomena areexamined without reduction of experimental precision. GT should not beunderstood as a static scientific position. But as a paradigm that iscontinuing to develop. Through developments such as the theory of theself-organization of systems, it attains major significance for many of thecurrent concerns of psychology.



CHAPTER III
Conclusions and Suggestions

A.         Conclusion
         Experimentalwork on Gestalt learning is primarily about the problem-solving capacities ofanimals: chimps spontaneously pile up boxes in order to climb on them to reachbananas, for example (Köhler, 1925). The learning element is shown by theirability to repeat the action later, without apparently having to pause andthink about it as they did the first time. However, recent experiments haveshown Betty the crow doing something just as ingenious and remarkable.
         It also contributes to anaccount of some of the difficulties people have with learning: Gestalten(similar to schemata, in a different discourse), once formed, are not easilydislodged or replaced.

B.        Suggestion
The ultimate aim of Gestalt therapy is toassist the client in restoring (or discovering) his/her own natural ability toself-regulate as an organism and have successful and fulfilling contact withothers (environmental others), as well as with disowned aspects of oneself(internal others). That allows one to be able to cope creatively with theevents of one’s life and to pursue those goals which seem good and desirable toone self.

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